2014 Seminars


Spatial statistics to assess spatial geo-environmental data

Kwame Awuah-Offei
Associate Professor
Mining & Nuclear Engineering Department
Missouri S&T

3:30 PM
Friday, February 14, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall- Civil Building
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
A defining feature of spatial data is autocorrelation of observations in space (i.e. observations close to each other in space are likely to be similar than those that are far apart). Spatial data can be classified by the characteristics of the d-dimensional domain into lattice, point patterns, and geostatistical data. The presence of spatial autocorrelation has specific implications for analysis, which if ignored lead to invalid inferences. The goal of this seminar is to present, and encourage discussion on: (i) the limitations of classical statistical models when applied to spatial data; and (ii) the specific answers that geostatistical analysis can provide in geo-environmental research. The presentation will use specific examples of heavy metal soil contamination and soil CO2 emissions to illustrate the value of geostatistical analysis to geo-environmental research.

Biography
Dr. Kwame Awuah-Offei is currently an associate professor of mining engineering at Missouri University of Science and Technology. He hold a PhD and BS(Hons) in mining engineering from University of Missouri-Rolla and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, respectively. His current research interests include geostatistics, stochastic processes, and modeling, simulation, and optimization of mining systems .He has over 12 years research experience. He has industry experience in surface gold and aggregates operations. He is nationally active in the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) is the current Chair of the Sustainable Development Committee.


Adventures in Trace Environmental & Biological Analysis

Dr. Santosh K. Mishra
ERC Research Chemist - Missouri S&T

3:30 PM
Friday, February 21, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall- Civil Building
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract: Aerosols scatter solar radiation and affect climate, hence it is important to characterize changes in atmospheric aerosols due to anthropogenic sources. Trace metals in aerosols, acts as markers in identifying generic source type and are used as indicator of pollutant transport. This talk will provide an overview of analytical instrumentation for sensitive and trace level detection of organic and inorganic species in atmospheric aerosols as well as several vital pioneering contributions in developing capillary chromatography instrumentation. Pharmaceuticals, non-biodegradable emerging contaminants, often pass through elimination steps of water and wastewater treatment plants. This talk will also focus on the oxidative degradation of commonly used antibiotic and analgesic from water using novel green chemical – Ferrate. Hydrogen Cyanide is the quickest acting of all poisons. Rapid quantification of blood cyanide is very important in clinical examination and on-site forensic investigations to detect victim’s cyanide exposure and to determine the antidote to be administered in order to save human life. This talk will also shed light on invention of new miniature rapid-point-of-care miniature cyanide detector.

Dr. Santosh Mishra is an Analytical Chemist and newly appointed Research Chemist at the Environmental Research Center at Missouri S&T. He has previously served as Technology Development Senior Process Engineer at Intel’s R&D fabrication facility in Portland, Oregon. Dr. Mishra has BS degree in Chemical Engineering from the Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai; MS degree in Chemistry from the Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida and PhD in Analytical Chemistry from the University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas. He holds memberships in numerous professional organizations and scientific research journals. Dr. Mishra has research interests and authored numerous papers in the areas of analytical instrumentation and analysis of atmospheric organic and inorganic contaminants.


Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration of Lead and Zinc Mining and Smelting Sites in Missouri

Dave Mosby
Supervising Environmental Contaminants Specialist
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Ecological Services Field Office Columbia, MO

3:30 PM
Friday, February 28, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall- Civil Building
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Natural Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration (NRDAR) is a part of several federal environmental statutes, including CERCLA, CWA, OPA, that are designed to compensate the public for lost natural resource services due to releases of hazardous substances, pollution, and/or oil, respectively. NRDAR within the state of Missouri has been primarily focused on wildlife habitat restoration of lead and zinc mining, milling, and smelting sites in the Tri-State Mining District and the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is investigating primary restoration of moderately-contaminated mining sites after a remedial action is complete. Primary restoration is the practice of establishing wildlife habitat on or near the formerly-contaminated site. Stabilizing metal-contaminated soils with high-phosphate soil amendments (both inorganic and organic-rich biosolids) has been demonstrated to reduce the bioavailability of lead and other heavy metals. This talk will highlight investigations of high-phosphate soil amendments in both the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District as a way to reduce the bioavailability of residual heavy metals and restore ecosystem health, under the auspices of the NRDAR program.

Biography
Dave Mosby is the Supervising Environmental Contaminants Specialist at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Columbia Missouri Ecological Services Field Office. Mr. Mosby has been working for the USFWS for eight years, focusing on contaminants which impact migratory birds, endangered species, and their habitats. Prior to his federal service, Mr. Mosby worked for eighteen years at the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, most recently as the Remedial Project Management Unit Chief, Superfund Section, Hazardous Waste Program. Dave has a M.S. in Soil Science from University of Missouri-Columbia, and a B.S. in Environmental Geology from Beloit College. Throughout most of his career, Mr. Mosby has been working on large lead and zinc mining sites, investigating alternative remediation and restoration techniques. Dave has authored reports to EPA and co-authored several papers on phosphate treatment as a means to reduce lead bioavailability.


Herculaneum, MO – A case study

Cherri Baysinger
Section of Epidemiology for Public Health Practices

Division of Community and Public Health
Department of Health and Senior Services

3:30 PM
Friday, March 7, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall- Civil Building
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Missouri has a long and rich history of lead mining. This history benefitted the state in many ways for many years. However, our mining history has left us with a plethora of legacy issues – environmental contamination, regulatory difficulties, and human health risks. All of these issues came together in the small town of Herculaneum, MO in the early 2000’s. The town of Herculaneum’s history revolves around lead. Lead smelting began in Herculaneum in the late 1800s and continued until 2013. The long history of smelting combined with a lack of regulatory oversight, contaminated streets, yards and other media throughout the town. Exposure to lead contamination created health issues for the residents of the town, particularly for the children. The smelter being the largest employer and benefactor for the town complicated the situation. This presentation will briefly cover how Herculaneum got into the situation it was in during the early 2000’s and how the regulatory and public health issues were ultimately addressed.

Biography
Ms Baysinger has a BA in Biology (1982) and an MS in Forestry, Fisheries and Wildlife (1989), both from the University of Missouri - Columbia. She has worked for the state of Missouri for 23 years, dividing her time between the Departments of Natural Resources and Health and Senior Services. For most of those years, she has been involved in cleaning up hazardous waste sites, either from the public health side, or from the regulatory side. Many of the sites Ms Baysinger has worked on have been related to lead mining. Ms Baysinger is currently the Administrator of the Section of Epidemiology for Public Health Practices.


“Green” Systems

Kevin Palmer
Director, Center for Sustainable Solutions
Charlottesville, VA

3:00 PM
Monday, March 10, 2014
Room 124, Butler-Carlton Civil Engineering Hall
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract: Sustainability is often a difficult concept for an organization to embrace. Initially, organizations often consider sustainability to be about environmental concepts or requirements. Upon examination and working with the topic, individuals realize that sustainability is all about systems and how to optimize their performance. In “Green Systems”, Mr. Palmer explores how the US Army has begun to understand the concept of sustainability and its utility in conducting the Army Mission. He describes how one installation, Fort Leonard Wood is embracing the concept and moving out.

Kevin Palmer has been working with the Army, Air Force, DOD, EPA and NASA as a scientist and consultant for over twenty-seven years. He enjoys integrating science, engineering, policy, and human behavior, to help the governmental organizations move toward sustainable operations. Kevin feels rewarded both as a professional and as a parent to work in a field that allows him to work on global issues. Since 2000, he has supported the Army at over 40 installations in developing and fielding strategic planning tools that provide installations a path toward a sustainable future. He has also supported military communities surrounding installations in leveraging installation sustainability efforts. He is currently supporting Fort Leonard Wood in their efforts to create a sustainable installation optimized to execute current and future Army missions. Kevin resides in Charlottesville, Virginia with his wife Dana and two children, Nathan and Abbey.


Building the Canal to Save Chicago

Richard Lanyon
Retired Executive Director, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District, Chicago

Thursday, March 20, 5-7 p.m.
Where: Room 125 Butler-Carlton Hall

Lecture & Book Signing
Building the Canal to Save Chicago
Abstract: Chicago was the fastest growing city in the late 1800s, but its location had one big disadvantage — poor drainage. Cholera and typhoid were rampant and Chicago had one of the highest mortality rates among major cities. The Chicago River was a public nuisance, polluted and smelly, and discharging to the source of water for the city, Lake Michigan. The building of a canal to reverse the flow of the Chicago River solved these problems and allowed the city to continue to grow, the mortality rate plummeted and the river became enjoyable. The building of the canal required the creation of a new government and the development of pioneering construction technology that helped in the building of the Panama Canal. The reversal of the flow in the Chicago River remains a wonder of the world and it remains critical to a sustainable future for the Chicago metropolis.


Urban Water Quality: Suspended Sediment Regimes and University Leadership

Jason A. Hubbart, Ph.D
Elliot Kellner
University of Missouri

3:30 PM
Friday, April 11, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Urbanization is linked to altered hydrologic regimes and water quality degradation. In 1998, Hinkson Creek, the major drainage flowing through the City of Columbia and the University of Missouri Campus, was added to the Clean Water Act 303(d) list of impaired waters for unknown reasons. Concerns were raised pertaining to aquatic biological communities, habitat, and water quality including suspended sediment. Given its relationships to aquatic ecosystem health and water quality, research is needed to quantify the impact of urban land uses on suspended sediment dynamics. Stormwater samples were analyzed using laser particle diffraction to quantify urban suspended sediment contributions to receiving waters. Receiving waters had higher total concentrations (323.26 µl/l and 318.77 µl/l, respectively) relative to urban sites (205.11 µl/l), which contained approximately 35% less total sediment. However, mean particle size was significantly lower (p < 0.001) from urban sites (58.94 µm) relative to receiving waters (167.48 µm and 131.13 µm), indicating a disproportionate contribution of fine sediment from the urban environment.

In May 2013, in one of the first campus-wide, long-term, cooperative efforts of its kind between University of Missouri (MU) Campus Facilities, and the College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, MU implemented a long-term monitoring project to quantitatively characterize campus stormwater quality to improve future campus development planning. Preliminary results indicate reduced average and maximum turbidity of stormwater monitored above campus relative to below campus, indicating low volumes of suspended materials in MU campus stormwater and pointing instead to flow volume as a cause for concern. In this presentation, the MU Stormwater Quality Monitoring Project will be discussed, and a method will be presented that may improve land managers ability to identify specific land use impacts to suspended sediment regimes, thus improving targeted mitigation practices.


Development of Integrated GIS Modeling Tools to Create More Sustainable Cities

Dr. John Woolschlager
Director of the Center of Sustainability
Associate Professor, Saint Louis University

3:30 PM
Friday, April 18, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Making policy decisions that support sustainable regional development requires the consideration of a multitude of issues with complex interrelationships that can often be counter-intuitive. Modeling and visualization are powerful tools that can help decision makers, engineers, planners, and the public examine and quickly comprehend the impacts of various scenarios. Under the leadership of John Woolschlager, Saint Louis University is developing a major research initiative in the area of developing integrated models that capture fundamental scientific and mathematical relationships. These models can be integrated into GIS-based tools used to develop evidence-based methods to better inform city planning decisions to create more sustainable communities. In this research focus area, our team is worked with the East-West Gateway Council of Governments on the 4.8 million-dollar grant supporting the Regional Plan for Sustainable Development (RPSD) project funded through HUD, DOT and the EPA, to help utilize simulation models to evaluate sustainability issues for the Saint Louis region. Dr. Woolschlager will discuss the RPSD project and other project initiatives in this rapidly-emerging field of research.

Biography
In July of 2013, Dr. Woolschlager was appointed as the Director of the Center for Sustainability, a degree-granting center that offers both a master’s degree in sustainability and a master’s of urban planning and real estate development. Previous to his current appointment, Dr. Woolschlager was the founding Chair of the Department of Civil Engineering that was started at Saint Louis University in the 2009/2010 academic year. Dr. Woolschlager’s research involves developing computer models of environmental systems to address pollution control, water quality improvement, and sustainability issues. Some examples of his funded projects include the optimization of large-scale urban drinking water systems to save energy, the optimization of wastewater treatment plants to achieve nutrient pollution reduction, applied research addressing world sanitation issues in developing nations, and analysis of regional sustainability issues.


Measurement of Particulate Matter Emissions from Aircraft Turbine Engines

Lukas Durdina
Graduate Researcher
Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Technology

3:30 PM
Friday, May 9, 2014
Room 314 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Air travel has doubled every 15 years since the dawn of the commercial jet age in the 1960s. Despite the massive improvements in combustion technology, emissions of fine particulate matter (PM) from the growing fleet can negatively impact the environment. The dated smoke number metric for aircraft PM emissions based on the plume opacity is inadequate for the new engines that produce no visible smoke. It also fails to capture PM properties, such as PM number and mass, particle size, morphology and chemical composition, that are important for assessing the environmental and health effects. A new certification standard for aircraft engines has been drafted, based on PM mass and number emissions. Before this standard can be set, emissions from the current fleet need to be well understood. A standardized sampling and measurement system of turbofan engine emissions is installed in the engine test cell at Zurich airport, Switzerland. International teams of researchers, including Missouri S&T, have performed there several experimental campaigns focused on characterization of aircraft engine PM emissions. In his talk, Lukas will give an introduction to aircraft emissions and will discuss his research project.

Biography
Since September 2012, Lukas Durdina is a PhD student at the Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Previously, he obtained his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering from Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic. There, he worked as a junior researcher on laser-based measurements of multi-phase flows and helped establish a new laboratory for fuel injector diagnostics. Lukas’s research involves measurement of physical properties of soot particles emitted by aircraft turbofan engines and emissions quantification. Lukas is a currently a visiting scholar at the Cloud and Aerosol Sciences Lab at Missouri S&T.


Mineralogical and Geochemical Attributes of Midcontinent Rift (MCR) Clastics: an Application of DeepCO2 Sequestration

Asedik Abousif
Graduate student
Missouri University of Science and Technology

3:30 PM
Friday, September 19, 2014
Room 124 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science and Technology

Abstract
The Mesoproterozoic Oronto Group represents an attractive target for CO2 sequestration because of the composition of its minerals will induce carbonate mineralization upon reaction in a H2O + CO2 system. The textural and chemical maturity of the Keweenawan Supergroup (Oronto and Bayfield Groups) increased as their age decreased. The Oronto Group was dominated by lithic to feldspathic lithic sandstone and conglomerate with significant calcite cementation, which results in a major reduction in porosity. Clay minerals are composed predominately of chlorite, followed by illite, and traces of smectite. The Bayfield and Jacobsville sandstones displayed a lithic-felsarenite to feldspathic quartz sandstone with abundant of kaolinite in its clay-sized fraction. The chemical composition of Oronto Group revealed high concentration of alkaline earth metal oxides (i.e. CaO and MgO: 4 – 12 wt%) compared to the overlying Bayfield Group (0 – 2 wt%). The dissolution of calcite cement with mildly acidic water (pH ≈ 4) in core-flooding experiments increased the permeability by 30% at room temperature and pressure conditions after 2 hours of testing. The same samples reacted under high pressure and temperature static test conditions (pCO2 about 9.23 bars and 90°C) released significant amounts of Ca and other components into the leachate solutions (between 1.6 to 20 mg/cm2.day Ca). The leachate solutions precipitated calcite as a result of CO2-DIW- rock interactions in 102 days of testing, and that is the final goal that represents the geochemical sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Biography
Alsedik Abousif was born and raised in SW Libya. He attended Sebha University (Libya) and gotBSc in geology in 1999. In August 2004, he pursued a Masters in stratigraphy and sedimentology from the Libyan Academy in Tripoli and graduated in 2007. In 2009, he joined Missouri University of Science and Technology (Rolla, MO), where he is pursuing his Ph.D. in geochemistry.


Investigation of Airborne Particle Composition and Chemistry

Dr. Brent Williams
Assistant Professor in Department of Energy
Washington University in Saint Louis

3:30 PM
Friday, September 26, 2014
Room 124 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Atmospheric aerosols are detrimental to human health and interact in a number of direct and indirect ways with the global climate. A large fraction of atmospheric aerosol mass is composed of organic material originating from a wide range of natural biogenic sources (e.g., plants, oceans, soils) and human-influenced anthropogenic sources (e.g., vehicles, heating and cooking processes, all combustion processes). This organic fraction, that displays continuous spatial and temporal fluctuation, can cause great variability in how these particles interact with the climate system and how they impact health. Globally, a majority of this organic aerosol is produced from gas-to-particle transformations in the atmosphere, making it even more challenging to track the original sources and chemical transformation pathways of this “secondary” organic aerosol (SOA). Here I will present a number of new tools that are currently being applied to lab and field studies of SOA sources and formation pathways. I will highlight some of the new insights gained from recent studies and will explore how these tools, which were developed for the investigation of outdoor atmospheric chemistry, can offer great value for furthering our understanding of indoor air composition and chemistry.

Biography
Dr. Brent Williams is the Raymond R. Tucker Distinguished I-CARES Career-Development Assistant Professor in the Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. His research focuses on the chemical and physical characterization of atmospheric gases and particles. Dr. Williams has developed several new instruments for in-situ chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol and applies these tools for laboratory-based emission studies and photochemical oxidation experiments, as well as for field measurements of ambient pollutants, with current projects sponsored through the U.S. EPA (including an Early Career Award), U.S. DOE, and NSF. Dr. Williams has recently served as the chair of Aerosol Chemistry as well as Instrumentation & Methods working groups of the American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR), and is a steering committee member of the WashU Climate Change Initiative (WUCCI) and Center for Aerosol Science & Engineering (CASE).


NAPL Droplet Trapping and Mobilization: Mechanisms for Reservoir Seismic Stimulation

Dr. Wen Deng
Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering
Assistant Professor, Missouri S&T

3:30 PM
Friday, October 3, 2014
Room 124 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science & Technology

Abstract
Reservoir seismic stimulation is a promising technology aimed to mobilize the capillary trapped non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in the subsurface. Its application can be in energy recovery and environmental remediation. Quantitative understanding of the NAPL droplet trapping and mobilization mechanisms in porous media is important for the practical application of reservoir seismic stimulation. Snap-off as a trapping mechanism and seismic dislodgement as a mobilization mechanism have been studied through our theoretical and computational work. For the trapping process, snap-off is a dominant mechanism for residual trapping of a nonwetting fluid by disconnection of a continuous stream of the nonwetting fluid when it passes through pore constrictions. While classic Roof snap-off criterion has been proposed over 40 years, we have proposed an extended snap-off criterion which can predict the occurrence of snap-off failed in Roof snap-off prediction. The extended snap-off criterion has been well justified by our computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. An evolution model is also proposed to theoretically describe the snap-off process. For the mobilization process, seismic dislodgement is a non-intrusive and efficient mechanism for the mobilization of residual trapped nonwetting droplets/bubbles in porous media. We present a theoretical fluid dynamics model to describe how low-frequency elastic waves mobilize isolated droplets trapped in pores by capillary resistance. The ability of the theoretical model to predict the critical mobilization amplitudes and the displacement dynamics of the nonwetting droplet are validated against CFD simulations. Our theory has the advantage of rapid calculation and effectiveness for predicting trapped nonwetting droplet dynamics in and dislodgement from pore constrictions by low-frequency elastic waves for various scenarios.

Biography
Dr. Deng obtained his bachelor degree in Mathematics from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, master degree in Civil Engineering from Tongji University, and PhD in Geosciences from Iowa State University. He worked as a postdoctoral fellow in Petroleum Engineering and Geological Sciences at The University of Texas at Austin before he joined the faculty at Missouri S&T. His research interests include multiphase flow, chemical and thermal transport, and microbial growth in porous and fractured media. He aims to achieve his study applications in the areas of geo-energy recovery, waste sequestration and environmental remediation through interdisciplinary collaboration. He would like to use a multipronged approach to elucidate key physical mechanism at the small scale, and then upscale the studies through mathematical analysis and computational models.


Adsorption of CO2 over Supported Amine Adsorbents in the Presence of SOx and NOx Impurities

Dr. Fateme Rezaei
Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering
Assistant Professor, Missouri S&T

3:30 PM
Friday, October 17, 2014
Room 124 Butler Carlton Hall
Missouri University of Science and Technology

Abstract
Flue gases from coal-fired power plants typically contain not only CO2 but other acid gas impurities such as SOx and NOx that can dramatically influence the CO2 capture efficiency. The deactivation of CO2 adsorbing materials in the presence of these impurities poses a significant challenge to the practical application and scale-up of the adsorption-based CO2 capture technologies due to the irreversible nature of the reaction between these species and many solid adsorbents which will dramatically reduce the adsorbent lifetime. Solid-supported amines have been identified as the most promising materials for the removal of CO2 from flue gas streams. Here, the stability of supported aminosilica adsorbents to SO2 and NOx impurities in CO2 capture process are evaluated by conducting equilibrium and dynamic adsorption experiments. The powder materials containing primary, secondary and tertiary amines are exposed to pure and binary gas mixtures in TGA and fixed bed systems. The CO2 capacity is measured before and after exposure to SO2, NO or NO2 to evaluate any CO2 capacity loss due to irreversible binding of these gases to the supported amine adsorbents. Furthermore, the stability of amine-based hollow fiber sorbents, as a novel carbon capture system, to SO2 and NOx are evaluated by conducting cyclic adsorption-desorption experiments using dry and humid simulated flue gas. The dynamic CO2 capacity of the hollow fibers are measured accordingly to evaluate any capacity loss after 120 cycles.

Biography
Dr. Rezaei obtained her PhD degrees in Chemical Engineering from Monash University in Australia and LTU in Sweden. She worked as a postdoctoral fellow at Georgia Tech before she joined the Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Department at Missouri S&T. Her research focus broadly lies at the interface of chemical, materials science and environmental engineering, where the general goal of her work is to develop advanced materials and processes for clean energy and sustainable chemical processes. In particular, her research relates to fundamental and applied aspects of adsorption, separations, and reaction.