Major instruments and functions

 

4000Q Trap LC/MSn (345A Schrenk Hall): A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (MSn). The mass spectrometer is an AB Sciex product and the model is 4000Q Trap. An Agilent 1100 Series HPLC is used for compound separation with an autosampler. This instrument is used to analyze many trace level compounds including large and small molecules such as proteins, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), water disinfection by-products (DBPs), pesticides and herbicides, explosives, and many more. The detection limit can reach part per billion(ppb) to part per trillion (ppt) for a lot of compounds. It not only can do the quantification of the compounds, it also can be used to elucidate some compound structures for qualitative identification by doing MS² and MS³.

 

ICP-MS (202 Butler Carlton Hall): A model Elan DRCe Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) was purchased from PerkinElmer. This instrument is mainly used for trace to ultra-trace level (part per trillion to part per billion concentrations) metal and semi-metal elements analysis. Most other elements can also be detected by this instrument, though the sensitivities are not as good as metal elements.

 

ICP-OES (263 McNutt Hall): Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) with liquid autosampler. The model is 2000D Series purchased from Perkin Elmer. This instrument is mainly used for metal elements and semi-metal elements analysis, and boron(B), silica(Si), phosphorous(P), sulfur(S) also can be detected. The sensitive of ICP-OES method is not as good as ICP-MS method for many elements.

 

GFAA (302 Butler Carlton Hall): Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (GFAA), model Aanalyst 600, equiped with a model AS800 autosampler purchased from PerkinElmer. It is mainly used to detect trace level metal and semi-metal elements. The instrument detection limit can reach to part per billion (ppb) for most metal and smimetal elements. It can detect only one element each time. Comparing eith ICP-MS and ICP-OES, GFAA is more econonmic to run but make more time.

 

FAA (302 Butler Carlton Hall): Flame Atomic Absoption Spectrophotomete, model 3110, purchased from PerkinElmer. It is used for metal elements analysis. It is a more traditional and reliable analytical instrument at low cost for operation, but at higher detection limit than the GFAAA and ICP-MS.

 

Mercury analyser (206 Butler Carlton Hall): Model 2066 CVAFS mercury analysis system with a Model 2620 autosampler, purchased from Tekran, is used for ultra-low lever mercury analsys. The detection limit of this instrument can reach to low part per trillion(ppt) concentration.

 

Microwave Digestion System (202 Butler Carlton Hall): Model is MultiWave 3000, Anton-Paar product. It is used for sample digestion for metal elemetn analysis. The are two rotors with this microwave, Rotor 8 (XH 100) with 8 digestion vessels for difficult sample digestion and Rotor 48 (MF50) with 48 digestion vessles for easy digestion samples.

 

GC-MS-P&T (303 Butler Carlton Hall): Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a Purge & Trap(P&T) autosampler and liquid autosampler.  It is an Agilent plroduct.  The GC model is 6890 and the Mass Selective Detector model is 5973Network. The purge and trap is a Tekmar-Dohrman model 3100 Sample Concentrator. This system is used to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds for both quantitative and qualitative. The Purge and Trap (P&T) auto-concentrater/sampler system makes better sensitivity of analysis without time consuming sample preparation.

 

GC-MS-TD (303 Butler Carlton Hall): Gas chromatography-mass spectrometey (GC-MS) with a Thermal Desorber (TD) sampler and a liquid autosampler. It is an Agilent product. The GC model is 6890 and MS model is 5973 inert. The Thermal Desorber is made by Marks International and the model is Unity. This system is used to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds for both quantitatively and qualitatively. The liquid auto sampler is used for general liquid injection, and Thermal Desorber is used mainly for air sample analysis (air quality monitoring). UNITY’s electrically cooled focusing trap retains even ultra volatile components without the use of liquid cryogen. Two, three or even four sorbent s can be packed in series for quantitative retention and efficient desorption of wide boiling range samples.

 

GC-COMBI PAL (302 Butler Carlton Hall): Gas chromatography (GC) model is 7890 ppurchased from Agilent Technology. The system equiped with a FID (flame ionization detector), a µECD (electron capture detecto), and a COMBI PAL autosampler. This system is used to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.  ECD is best for detecting electron-absorbing components (high electronegativity) such as halogenated compound. FID is best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components. The tri-function COMBI PAL autosampler is a product of CTC Analytics and can be use to inject SPME (solid phase microextraction), headspace, and liquid samples automatically.

 

GC-TD (303 Butler Carlton Hall): Agilent model 6890 Series Gas Chromatograph with Flame Ionization Detector (FID) and Electron Capture Detectors (µECD). This GC equiped with a liquid autosampler and a UNITY Thermal Desorber with Ultra TD autosampler purchased from Markes International. This system is used to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds. ECD is best for detecting electron-absorbing components (highly electronegativity) such as halogenated compound. FID is best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components. The liquid autosampler is used for general liquid injection, and the Unity-Altr-TD is used mainly for air sample analysis (air quality monitoring). UNITY’s electrically cooled focusing trap retains even ultra volatile components without the use of liquid cryogen. Two, three or even four sorbent s can be packed in series for quantitative retention and efficient desorption of wide boiling range samples. The Altra-TD autosampler can load 100 sample tubes each batch.

 

GC (303 Butler Carlton Hall): A Hewlett Packard (HP) model 5890 Series II Gas Chromatograph (GC) with Flame Ionization detector (FID) and Electron Capture Detector (ECD) fitted with a HP model7673 GC/FSC liquid autosampler and a Tekkmar headspace autosampler. This system is used to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds. ECD is best for detecting electron-absorbing components (highly electronegativity) such as halogenated compound. FID is best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components. The liquid autosampler is used for general liquid injection, and the headspace autosampler is used for headspace injection of solid or liquid samples.

 

Agilent LC-MS (306 Butler Carlton Hall): A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a single quadruple mass spectrometry (MS), model G1946D, was purchased from Agilent Technology. This instrument is used for many compounds (PPCPs, DBPs, pesticides and herbicides, proteins, and many more) quantitative analysis at trace level (ppb).

 

LTA HPLC (302 Butler Carlton Hall): High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system composed with two model P600 pumps, a model UV600 UV-Vis absorbance etector, a Spark model 840 autosampler, and a column oven. It was purchased from Labtech America. This instrument can be used to analysis of compounds absorbing UV-Vis light in wavelenght range 190nm-600nm.

 

Waters HPLC (302 Butler Carlton Hall): High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)system composed with a model 600E controller, a model 60F pump, a model 717 Plus autosampler, a model 996 PDA (photodiode array) detector, and a model 2475 fluorescence detector (FLD), was purchased from Waters. This HPLC is used to analyze those compounds absorbing UV and visible wavelengths light by PDA detector and those compounds fluorescence by FLD.

 

IC (302 Butler Carlton Hall): A model DX-120 Ion Chromatography (IC) with a model AS40 auto sampler was purchased from Dionex. This instrument is mainly used to analyze anions such as fluoride (F¿), chloride (Cl¿), nitrate (NO3¿), nitride (NO2¿), phosphate (PO4¿), sulfate (SO4¿), and many other anions.

 

TOC analyzer (302 Butler Carlton Hall): Total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer is a Shimadzu product. The system is composed with a model TOC-5050A analyzer, a model ASI-5000A liquid autosampler, a model SSM-5000A solid autosampler, and a Whatman model 78-40 gas generator. This instrument is used to detect toatl organic carbon, and inorganic carbon in both liquid and solid samples.

 

Zetasizer (202 Butler Carlton Hall): A Zetasizer is a product of Malvern, model Nano-ZS90. It is used for particale characterization, including partical size, zeta potential, and iso-electric point (IP) detection of particle size range 0.3 nm – 5 microns. The materials include Pharmaceutical dispersions and emulsions, nanoparticles, chemicals – subfactant micelles, colloid size and size distribution, and liposomes/ vesicles.

 

UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (303 Butler Carlton Hall): Model Cary 50 Conc Scanning UV/Vis Spectrophotometer purchased from Varian. This is a very fast scan rate spectrophotometer (can scan the shole wavelenght range of 190 – 110 nm in less than 3 seconds) can be used to measure the concentration of the compounds absorbing light wavelenght in UV and visible ranges, to scan the absoption spectra of the compounds, and to perform kinetic study (data collection rate 80 points/sec).